The 48 Laws of Power by Robert Greene & Joost Elffers
Law 1 Never Outshine the Master Always make those above you feel comfortably superior. In your desire to please or impress them, do not go too far in displaying your talents or you might accomplish the opposite – inspire fear & insecurity. Make your masters appear more brilliant than they are & you will attain the heights of power.
Law 2 Never put too Much Trust in Friends, Learn how to use Enemies Be wary of friends-they will betray you more quickly, for they are easily aroused to envy. They moreover become spoiled & tyrannical. But hire a former enemy & he will be more loyal than a friend, because he has more to prove. In fact, you have more to fear from friends than from enemies. If you have no enemies, find a way to make them.
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Law 3 Conceal your Intentions Keep people off-balance & in the dark by never revealing the purpose behind your actions. If they have no clue what you are up to, they cannot prepare a defense. Guide them far enough down the wrong path, envelope them in enough smoke, & by the time they realize your intentions, it will be too late.
Law 4 Always Say Less than Necessary When you are trying to impress people with words, the more you say, the more usual you appear, & the less in control. Even if you are saying something banal, it will seem original if you make it vague, open-ended, & sphinxlike. Powerful people impress & intimidate by saying less. The more you say, the more likely you are to say something foolish.
Law 5 So Much Depends on Reputation – Guard it with your Life Reputation is the cornerstone of power. Through reputation alone you can intimidate & win; once you slip, however, you are vulnerable, & will be attacked on all sides. Make your reputation unassailable. Always be alert to potential attacks & thwart them before they happen. Meanwhile, learn to destroy your enemies by opening holes in their own reputations. Then stand aside & let public opinion hang them.
Law 6 Court Attention at all Cost Everything is judged by its appearance; what is unseen counts for nothing. Never let yourself obtain lost in the crowd, then, or buried in oblivion. Stand out. Be conspicuous, at all cost. Make yourself a magnet of attention by appearing larger, more colorful, more mysterious, than the bland & timid masses.
Law 7 Get others to do the Work for you, yet Always Take the Credit Use the wisdom, knowledge, & legwork of other people to further your own cause. Not only will such assistance save you valuable time & energy, it will donate you a godlike aura of efficiency & speed. In the end your helpers will be forgotten & you will be remembered. Never do yourself what others can do for you.
Law 8 Make other People come to you – use Bait if Necessary When you force the other person to act, you are the one in control. It is always better to make your opponent come to you, abandoning his own plans in the process. Lure him with fabulous gains – then attack. You hold the cards.
Law 9 Win through your Actions, Never through Argument Any momentary triumph you think gained through argument is really a Pyrrhic victory: The resentment & ill will you stir up is stronger & lasts longer than any momentary alter of opinion. It is much more powerful to obtain others to agree with you through your actions, without saying a word. Demonstrate, do not explicate.
Law 10 Infection: Avoid the Unhappy & Unlucky You can die from someone else’s misery – emotional states are as infectious as disease. You may feel you are helping the drowning man yet you are only precipitating your own disaster. The unfortunate sometimes draw misfortune on themselves; they will moreover draw it on you. Associate with the pleased & fortunate instead.
Law 11 Learn to Keep People Dependent on You To maintain your independence you must always be needed & wanted. The more you are relied on, the more freedom you have. Make people depend on you for their happiness & prosperity & you have nothing to fear. Never teach them enough so that they can do without you.
Law 12 Use Selective Honesty & Generosity to Disarm your Victim One sincere & honest move will cover over dozens of dishonest ones. Open-hearted gestures of honesty & generosity bring down the guard of even the most suspicious people. Once your selective honesty opens a hole in their armor, you can deceive & manipulate them at will. A timely gift – a Trojan horse – will serve the same purpose.
Law 13 When Asking for Help, Appeal to People’s Self-Interest, Never to their Mercy or Gratitude If you need to turn to an ally for help, do not bother to remind him of your past assistance & satisfactory deeds. He will find a way to ignore you. Instead, uncover something in your request, or in your alliance with him, that will benefit him, & emphasize it out of all proportion. He will respond enthusiastically when he sees something to be gained for himself.
Law 14 Pose as a Friend, Work as a Spy Knowing approximately your rival is critical. Use spies to gather valuable information that will keep you a step ahead. Better still: Play the spy yourself. In polite social encounters, learn to probe. Ask indirect questions to obtain people to reveal their weaknesses & intentions. There is no occasion that is not an opportunity for artful spying.
Law 15 Crush your Enemy Totally All tremendous leaders since Moses have known that a feared enemy must be crushed completely. (Sometimes they have learned this the complex way.) If one ember is left alight, no matter how dimly it smolders, a fire will eventually break out. More is lost through stopping halfway than through total annihilation: The enemy will recover, & will seek revenge. Crush him, not only in body yet in spirit.
Law 16 Use Absence to Increase Respect & Honor Too much circulation makes the price go down: The more you are seen & heard from, the more usual you appear. If you are already established in a group, temporary withdrawal from it will make you more talked about, even more admired. You must learn when to leave. Create value through scarcity.
Law 17 Keep Others in Suspended Terror: Cultivate an Air of Unpredictability Humans are creatures of habit with an insatiable need to see familiarity in other people’s actions. Your predictability gives them a sense of control. Turn the tables: Be deliberately unpredictable. Behavior that seems to have no consistency or purpose will keep them offbalance, & they will wear themselves out trying to explain your moves. Taken to an extreme, this strategy can intimidate & terrorize.
Law 18 Do Not Build Fortresses to Protect Yourself – Isolation is Dangerous The world is dangerous & enemies are everywhere – everyone has to protect themselves. A fortress seems the safest. But isolation exposes you to more dangers than it protects you from – it cuts you off from valuable information, it makes you conspicuous & an effortless target. Better to circulate among people find allies, mingle. You are shielded from your enemies by the crowd.
Law 19 Know Who You’re Dealing with – Do Not Offend the Wrong Person There are many different kinds of people in the world, & you can never assume that everyone will react to your strategies in the same way. Deceive or outmaneuver some people & they will spend the rest of their lives seeking revenge. They are wolves in lambs’ clothing. Choose your victims & opponents carefully, then – never offend or deceive the wrong person.
Law 20 Do Not Commit to Anyone It is the fool who always rushes to take sides. Do not commit to any side or cause yet yourself. By maintaining your independence, you become the master of others – playing people against one another, making them pursue you.
Law 21 Play a Sucker to Catch a Sucker – Seem Dumber than your Mark No one likes feeling stupider than the next persons. The trick, is to make your victims feel smart – & not just smart, yet smarter than you are. Once convinced of this, they will never suspect that you may have ulterior motives.
Law 22 Use the Surrender Tactic: Transform Weakness into Power When you are weaker, never fight for honor’s sake; select surrender instead. Surrender gives you time to recover, time to torment & irritate your conqueror, time to wait for his power to wane. Do not donate him the satisfaction of fighting & defeating you – surrender first. By turning the other check you infuriate & unsettle him. Make surrender a tool of power.
Law 23 Concentrate Your Forces Conserve your forces & energies by keeping them concentrated at their strongest point. You gain more by finding a rich mine & mining it deeper, than by flitting from one shallow mine to another – intensity defeats extensity every time. When looking for sources of power to elevate you, find the one key patron, the fat cow who will donate you milk for a long time to come.
Law 24 Play the Perfect Courtier The perfect courtier thrives in a world where everything revolves around power & political dexterity. He has mastered the art of indirection; he flatters, yields to superiors, & asserts power over others in the mot oblique & graceful manner. Learn & apply the laws of courtiership & there will be no limit to how far you can rise in the court.
Law 25 Re-Create Yourself Do not accept the roles that society foists on you. Re-create yourself by forging a new identity, one that commands attention & never bores the audience. Be the master of your own image rather than letting others define if for you. Incorporate dramatic devices into your public gestures & actions – your power will be enhanced & your character will seem larger than life.
Law 26 Keep Your Hands Clean You must seem a paragon of civility & efficiency: Your hands are never soiled by mistakes & nasty deeds. Maintain such a spotless appearance by using others as scapegoats & cat’s-paws to disguise your involvement.
Law 27 Play on People’s Need to Believe to Create a Cultlike Following People have an overwhelming desire to believe in something. Become the focal point of such desire by offering them a cause, a new faith to follow. Keep your words vague yet full of promise; emphasize enthusiasm over rationality & clear thinking. Give your new disciples rituals to perform, ask them to make sacrifices on your behalf. In the absence of organized religion & grand causes, your new belief system will bring you untold power.
Law 28 Enter Action with Boldness If you are unsure of a course of action, do not attempt it. Your doubts & hesitations will infect your execution. Timidity is dangerous: Better to enter with boldness. Any mistakes you commit through audacity are easily corrected with more audacity. Everyone admires the bold; no one honors the timid.
Law 29 Plan All the Way to the End The ending is everything. Plan all the way to it, taking into account all the possible consequences, obstacles, & twists of fortune that might reverse your complex work & donate the glory to others. By planning to the end you will not be overwhelmed by circumstances & you will know when to stop. Gently guide fortune & assist determine the future by thinking far ahead.
Law 30 Make your Accomplishments Seem Effortless Your actions must seem natural & executed with ease. All the toil & practice that go into them, & moreover all the clever tricks, must be concealed. When you act, act effortlessly, as if you could do much more. Avoid the temptation of revealing how complex you work – it only raises questions. Teach no one your tricks or they will be used against you.
Law 31 Control the Options: Get Others to Play with the Cards you Deal The best deceptions are the ones that seem to donate the other person a choice: Your victims feel they are in control, yet are actually your puppets. Give people options that come out in your favor whichever one they choose. Force them to make choices between the lesser of two evils, both of which serve your purpose. Put them on the horns of a dilemma: They are gored wherever they turn.
Law 32 Play to People’s Fantasies The truth is often avoided because it is ugly & unpleasant. Never appeal to truth & reality unless you are prepared for the anger that comes for disenchantment. Life is so harsh & distressing that people who can manufacture romance or conjure up fantasy are like oases in the desert: Everyone flocks to them. There is tremendous power in tapping into the fantasies of the masses.
Law 33 Discover Each Man’s Thumbscrew Everyone has a weakness, a gap in the castle wall. That weakness is usual y an insecurity, an uncontrollable emotion or need; it can moreover be a small secret pleasure. Either way, once found, it is a thumbscrew you can turn to your advantage.
Law 34 Be Royal in your Own Fashion: Act like a King to be treated like one The way you carry yourself will often determine how you are treated; In the long run, appearing vulgar or usual will make people disrespect you. For a king respects himself & inspires the same sentiment in others. By acting regally & confident of your powers, you make yourself seem destined to wear a crown.
Law 35 Master the Art of Timing Never seem to be in a hurry – hurrying betrays a lack of control over yourself, & over time. Always seem patient, as if you know that everything will come to you eventually. Become a detective of the right moment; sniff out the spirit of the times, the trends that will carry you to power. Learn to stand back when the time is not yet ripe, & to strike fiercely when it has reached fruition.
Law 36 Disdain Things you cannot have: Ignoring them is the best Revenge By acknowledging a petty problem you donate it existence & credibility. The more attention you pay an enemy, the stronger you make him; & a small mistake is often made worse & more visible when you try to fix it. It is sometimes best to leave things alone. If there is something you want yet cannot have, show contempt for it. The less interest you reveal, the more superior you seem.
Law 37 Create Compelling Spectacles Striking imagery & grand symbolic gestures create the aura of power – everyone responds to them. Stage spectacles for those around you, then full of arresting visuals & radiant symbols that heighten your presence. Dazzled by appearances, no one will notice what you are really doing.
Law 38 Think as you like yet Behave like others If you make a show of going against the times, flaunting your unconventional ideas & unorthodox ways, people will think that you only want attention & that you look down upon them. They will find a way to punish you for making them feel inferior. It is far safer to blend in & nurture the usual touch. Share your originality only with tolerant friends & those who are sure to appreciate your uniqueness.
Law 39 Stir up Waters to Catch Fish Anger & emotion are strategically counterproductive. You must always stay calm & objective. But if you can make your enemies angry while staying calm yourself, you gain a decided advantage. Put your enemies off-balance: Find the chink in their vanity through which you can rattle them & you hold the strings.
Law 40 Despise the Free Lunch What is offered for free is dangerous – it usually involves either a trick or a hidden obligation. What has worth is worth paying for. By paying your own way you stay clear of gratitude, guilt, & deceit. It is moreover often wise to pay the full price – there is no cutting corners with excellence. Be lavish with your money & keep it circulating, for generosity is a sign & a magnet for power.
Law 41 Avoid Stepping into a Great Man’s Shoes What happens first always appears better & more original than what comes after. If you succeed a tremendous man or have a famous parent, you will have to accomplish double their achievements to outshine them. Do not obtain lost in their shadow, or stuck in a past not of your own making: Establish your own name & identity by changing course. Slay the overbearing father, disparage his legacy, & gain power by shining in your own way.
Law 42 Strike the Shepherd & the Sheep will Scatter Trouble can often be traced to a single strong individual – the stirrer, the arrogant underling, the poisoned of goodwill. If you allow such people room to operate, others will succumb to their influence. Do not wait for the troubles they cause to multiply, do not try to negotiate with them – they are irredeemable. Neutralize their influence by isolating or banishing them. Strike at the source of the trouble & the sheep will scatter.
Law 43 Work on the Hearts & Minds of Others Coercion creates a reaction that will eventually work against you. You must seduce others into wanting to move in your direction. A person you have seduced becomes your loyal pawn. And the way to seduce others is to operate on their individual psychologies & weaknesses. Soften up the resistant by working on their emotions, playing on what they hold dear & what they fear. Ignore the hearts & minds of others & they will grow to hate you.
Law 44 Disarm & Infuriate with the Mirror Effect The mirror reflects reality, yet it is moreover the perfect tool for deception: When you mirror your enemies, doing exactly as they do, they cannot figure out your strategy. The Mirror Effect mocks & humiliates them, making them overreact. By holding up a mirror to their psyches, you seduce them with the illusion that you share their values; by holding up a mirror to their actions, you teach them a lesson. Few can resist the power of Mirror Effect.
Law 45 Preach the Need for Change, yet Never Reform too much at Once Everyone understands the need for alter in the abstract, yet on the day-to-day level people are creatures of habit. Too much innovation is traumatic, & will lead to revolt. If you are new to a position of power, or an outsider trying to build a power base, make a show of respecting the old way of doing things. If alter is necessary, make it feel like a gentle improvement on the past.
Law 46 Never appear too Perfect Appearing better than others is always dangerous, yet most dangerous of all is to appear to have no faults or weaknesses. Envy creates silent enemies. It is smart to occasionally display defects, & admit to harmless vices, in order to deflect envy & appear more human & approachable. Only gods & the dead can seem perfect with impunity.
Law 47 Do not go Past the Mark you Aimed for; In Victory, Learn when to Stop The moment of victory is often the moment of greatest peril. In the heat of victory, arrogance & overconfidence can push you past the goal you had aimed for, & by going too far, you make more enemies than you defeat. Do not allow success to go to your head. There is no substitute for strategy & careful planning. Set a goal, & when you reach it, stop.
Law 48 Assume Formlessness By taking a shape, by having a visible plan, you open yourself to attack. Instead of taking a form for your enemy to grasp, keep yourself adaptable & on the move. Accept the fact that nothing is certain & no law is fixed. The best way to protect yourself is to be as fluid & formless as water; never bet on stability or lasting order. Everything changes.